Sectors & Projects

Residential Development

We have been engaged to facilitate environmental planning approvals for a wide range of urban development projects in Queensland and New South Wales, with urban growth centres in Southeast Queensland being a focus.

The examples we provide include large projects of note on greenfield sites, and smaller projects with complex or interesting challenges. The examples also demonstrate our experience in different parts of the urban matrix – noting that the challenges we see with infill development differ from those encountered on the urban fringe.

We have included some of our older projects, because they are now largely or wholly constructed, and their integration into the natural and urban landscape is complete.

We have coordinated ecological and bushfire hazard assessment for a wide range of rural and park residential projects in Queensland and New South Wales. In recent years, this form of development has succumbed to more restrictive landuse planning (e.g. SEQ Regional Plan). Nonetheless, opportunities for this form of development remain, and we continue to advise on projects of various size.

A decline in rural residential projects has been matched by a rise in the redevelopment of individual large lots on the urban fringe. This has been particularly noticeable in the Greater Brisbane region, where large lots are often subject to restrictive zoning and overlays (e.g. Koala habitat protection) or community sensitivity.

Industrial & Warehousing

Although urban in nature, the large flat pads required by industrial, warehouse and commercial projects do not offer the same opportunities for flexible design that exist with residential projects. As such, there is greater focus on establishing broad areas of constraint-free land and achieving environmental outcomes through retention of consolidated conservation areas.

Community Services

Outwardly, community services such as hospitals, aged care, childcare, education and emergency management facilities are part of a homogenous urban landscape. However, on closer inspection they have unique environmental management requirements.

Hospitals, aged care facilities and schools cater to vulnerable clients (the young, old and infirm), who require safe settings. For emergency management facilities, there is a clear need for order and stability during emergency situations. These requirements establish a sharper focus on vegetation and bushfire management than might otherwise occur for ordinary urban development. 

If well-planned, the sites on which these facilities are located can continue to make a significant contribution to the greenspace values of an urban area


28 South personnel have extensive experience in the delivery of renewable energy projects in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.  Our experience includes undertaking ecological surveys, reporting and peer review scopes for wind farms and solar farms to achieve planning and environmental approvals.  Our Principal Environmental Planner – Chris Cantwell – also boasts unique experience in working proponent-side project managing and delivering wind and solar farm projects for a global renewable energy company.  Consequently, 28 South distinguishes itself from other environmental consultancies through its unparalleled understanding of the complex and dynamic renewable energy industry in Australia, including its main challenges and opportunities.  We offer site feasibility, project management, planning and environmental approvals, ecology and stakeholder engagement services to meet the requirements of renewable energy developers and to promote the continued growth of this industry on the eastern seaboard.  Key project examples are listed below.

Large Scale Energy & Infrastructure

Our staff have many years of experience in providing ecological and environmental planning services for large-scale energy projects in Queensland.  This includes involvement in the delivery of all major CSG to LNG projects in Central Queensland, which were at the time subject to some of the most stringent environmental approval conditions issued under Commonwealth and State legislation.  We have helped our clients obtain approvals for projects that range from the most populated to the least populated places of Queensland.  Project examples are listed below (click on the link for project sheets).  Our experience on large-scale renewable energy projects is detailed here.

  • Australia Pacific LNG – Mainline and Lateral Pipeline Detailed Ecological Infield Studies
  • Australia Pacific LNG – Threatened Species Management Program
  • Origin Energy – Gathering Network Scouting Surveys
  • Arrow Energy – Front-end Engineering and Design Environmental Management and Regulatory Approvals
  • Santos GLNG – Gathering Network Scouting Surveys
  • APA Group – Roma to Brisbane Metropolitan Looping Project
  • Central Petroleum – South Georgina Basin Seismic Surveys and Environmental Authority

We have provided advice on a wide range of urban and regional infrastructure projects, including sewer, water and gas pipelines, telecommunications facilities and transport infrastructure.

Public Realm

We work as an integrated part of multidisciplinary teams in the design and delivery of public realm environments. This may be as part of initial concept through to detailed design and construction management. Often our most valuable public realm environments, such as foreshores or regional parklands also hold an inherent ecological value. We work to ensure that these values are suitably managed and are able to become a celebrated feature and experience for the public to enjoy.


Ecotourism projects present a unique set of challenges. They seek to establish development in highly sensitive settings but do so in a way that does not detract from the environmental experience or establish reputational risk for the project. Their setting will often create challenging environmental approvals, and care is needed to negotiate development conditions that can be realistically achieved when it comes time for construction.


We have coordinated development approvals, and assisted with the shaping of a wide range of recreation development projects. Each project has presented its own unique challenges, often requiring careful analysis and strategy to resolve. In many cases we have identified opportunities for genuine environmental enhancement, a key outcome for subsequent approvals, and an important element of the project’s overall environmental narrative.

Agriculture & Rural Industry

We have coordinated due diligence investigations and approvals for a range of rural development projects, and advised landholders on more routine matters such as permissible clearing and PMAVs. We have assisted landholders and their legal representatives to defend land clearing prosecution charges brought under the Commonwealth EPBC Act; NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act; and NSW Native Vegetation Act. We have also assisted the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage to investigate illegal land clearing, and coordinate prosecutions.

Expert Witness

We provide expert witness services in the Queensland Planning and Environment Court, Queensland Land Court, and NSW Planning and Environment Court. We have advised on residential and industrial development, tourism and ecotourism, recreation, quarrying and infrastructure projects. We also have significant experience in advising on land clearing prosecutions. We have advised on more than 60 matters.

Wayne Moffitt’s legal CV

Government Advisory

We have represented the State Governments of Queensland and New South Wales in land clearing prosecution matters, development appeals, and land resumption matters. We have similarly represented Local Government in both states.

We have advised State and Local Government on environmental strategy and approval pathways for high profile public projects such as the Petrie Mill Redevelopment project, and in previous roles on: The Moreton Bay Rail Link; and Statewide Road Corridor Environmental Assessment.

Quarrying, Resources & Landfill

We have coordinated ecological assessment and approvals for sand, gravel, and hard rock quarrying projects; and landfill and resource recovery projects in Queensland and New South Wales. We have also coordinated end of life rehabilitation strategies for these projects.